Ear Molding for Babies
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In the past, fixing a baby's ear deformity had to wait until they were a toddler. But with this new ear molding technique, it can happen when they're still a newborn. Watch this to see the interesting method.
Transcript: Ok so when a baby is very very little, if they're born with an ear abnormality, and about 30% of babies...
Ok so when a baby is very very little, if they're born with an ear abnormality, and about 30% of babies are born with some type of ear abnormality, from very very minor to missing ears. And out of that 30%, about 30% will self-correct. Which means 70% will not self-correct. And when a baby is very very small they have a high level of circulating estrogen in their blood from being inside the mom, and what we think is happening is that level of estrogen makes the ear cartilage moldable, so you have this very short time that you can reshape the ear. And it's from day 1 to about 6 weeks. And during that time, you can put a little mold on the baby's ear, reshape it, push it in the right places, pull it in the right places, and change the ear forever. And the results are fantastic. Now we're seeing babies at day 1, day 2, day 3 of life, and identifying them so early, molding their ears, and we're able to correct the ears in about 2 weeks. That's when you really get the best percentage. If you wait, and the ear cartilage hardens, and the baby's several months old, or they're a few years old, then your only option is surgery. And the surgery is great, it's a wonderful surgery to do... but it's real surgery. And real surgery means that there's a cost involved. That not only there's the financial cost, but there's the cost of taking off time from school or doing it over the summer, there's a few hours of general anesthesia, and there's the potential of complications. The complications of otoplasty, would be an infection, sometimes requiring iv antibiotics, um, sometimes residual deformity, that's probably the most common complication requiring another surgery. So there's real complications and if you can avoid anesthesia for a little baby and avoid the cost of surgery, you know, I think it's um, I think the molding techniques are great.More »
Last Modified: 2014-08-05 | Tags »
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Worried by old wives' tales vs. the real scoop about your child's health? Here's your chance to test your knowledge and learn the facts behind the myths. Take the quiz!
Last Modified: 2011-04-01 | Tags »
Most babies in the U.S. born with cleft palates get the deformity fixed at a young age. Learn about this procedure.
Transcript: So the reasons for doing cleft palate surgery are speech, speech, speech. it's a surgery so that you...
So the reasons for doing cleft palate surgery are speech, speech, speech. it's a surgery so that you correct your speech patterns earlier. usually the classic time for palate surgery is between 12 and 18 months. And one of the issues with cleft palate, or one of the debates...is what should be the optimal timing for doing a cleft palate. And the debate is between optimizing speech development and that's the reason to do it earlier, and not retarding facial growth so by, by doing the palate repair, there is a potential for limiting facial growth and not having the same facial growth if you waited to the palate repair until the child is much older. And what we tend, what a lot of surgeons tend to do, is we to favor speech. Because poor speech patterns are very hard to lose and proper speech development is so critical to communication and to fitting into the world. There's orthognathic surgery, which means um, surgery on the facial bones...And those can be in rhinoplasties, it can be moving the top part of your jaw forward, and usually that's performed with a child, around 16 to 18 years old. So after the facial growth is complete. So cleft palate, what cleft palate is, is that basically there is a V or a U space between the palate. So if it's shaped kind of like this, and then what we want to do with the palate is close that space. And how we do that is by doing a multi-layer repair. Moving the muscles together so that the palate functions normally. Because the muscles are set like this and we really want them to overlap each other. ... if the muscles are like this, the palate can be lifted up, and lifted back. So you can make much more normal sounds. And then also, we bring over the mucosa and bring over the nasal lining. We'll have the baby stay over overnight in the hospital, just to monitor, make sure they're breathing is, is doing well, make sure they're eating properly, make sure that they're comfortable, and usually after a day, or 1-2 days, they go home, and they recover very very quickly. Working with children is, is fantastic. Usually I mean when you're born in this country, one of the things that you, through your newborn exam, it is noticed if you have a cleft palate or a cleft lip. So I think we're capturing all of the infants in this country. If you're born in another country, you know, you might be a child or an adult having cleft lip or cleft palate surgery, but it's very rare in this country, um, to be an American citizen to not have it when you're a baby.More »
Last Modified: 2014-08-06 | Tags »
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You know to cover the electrical outlets, but what other hidden dangers put Baby at risk? Once he or she starts crawling and walking, childproofing needs soar! Test your skills and get the facts.
Last Modified: 2013-04-17 | Tags »
The Newborn Butterfly Project is an initiative at New York-Presbyterian Hospital-Cornell that help newborn babies receive painless ear deformity corrections at a very early age. See how successful it is!
Transcript: So the Newborn Butterfly Project is a project that I started at Cornell....And so any baby who's born...
So the Newborn Butterfly Project is a project that I started at Cornell....And so any baby who's born at Cornell is evaluated for having an abnormal ear while they're in the newborn nursery. If they have an abnormal ear, they call me, I come in, I evaluate the ear, I talk to the parents, and if appropriate, we decide to mold the ear. Now we're seeing babies at day 1, day 2, day 3 of life, and identifying them so early, molding their ears, and we're able to correct the ears in about 2 weeks, and from my initial study, doing the Newborn Butterfly Project, the correction rate was 96% which is so much higher than has ever been published. So it's really really exciting, because the results, not only are they fantastic, but they're really, some of the results are better than what you can get with surgery.More »
Last Modified: 2014-08-05 | Tags »
ear molding, newborn butterfly project, ear deformity, newborn ear, newborn cartilage, newborn ear deformity ears, deformity, plastic surgery cosmetic surgery, melissa doft
Dental Fluorosis can start from an early age. The initial signs are quite minimal, but they may result in white speckled teeth. Find out more about this here.
Transcript: Nobody likes yellow, stained teeth. But imagine obvious white specks on your teeth that can NEVER be...
Nobody likes yellow, stained teeth. But imagine obvious white specks on your teeth that can NEVER be brushed away.Those specks may be a condition called FLUOROSIS, where fluoride mineralizes on the outer layer of your teeth, damaging the enamel surface. In mild cases, it's nothing more than a whitish spot making the rest of the tooth look yellower in comparison. In more severe cases, mottling of the enamel leads to black and brown stains, and cracking and pitting of the teeth, making them MORE susceptible overall to cavities and tooth decay. Fluorosis FIRST develops in CHILDREN, between the ages of 1 and 4. -- BEFORE permanent teeth come in. Fluoride exposure is MOST critical at this time because permanent teeth are still developing. While the amount of fluoride that's added to water by city municipalities IS NOT a problem, some communities have higher concentrations of naturally occurring fluoride, that CAN cause MILD to moderate cases of fluorosis. The fluoride in toothpastes IS NOT an issue if not swallowed in large amounts. Plus, most children's toothpastes are fluoride- free. Past the age of 8, however, additional fluorosis is not USUALLY a risk. The EFFECTS of fluorosis are IRREVERSIBLE and preventive measures would have to be taken when the child was very young. If you want to get rid of those pesky specks, though, you've got options. Bleaching or even abrasion can take care of mild cases. Abrasion finely sands off the outer layer of stained enamel, leaving you speck-free. If your case is more severe, abrasion will take off too much enamel, which is why composite bonding and porcelain veneers may be a better bet. In composite bonding, the enamel is treated or etched with a mild acid so a composite resin can be bonded on to the tooth surface. With veneers, a ceramic SHELL is placed over the front of the tooth. Both look good initially, but while bonding is less EXPENSIVE than veneers, it tends to discolor over time and is considered less permanent.For more ways to make your smile look amazing, check out other videos in this series.More »
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Parents should educate themselves about the early signs of autism. Learn more about this by watching this video.
Transcript: April is Autism Awareness Month. Here at rethink autism, wed like to do out part in helping children...
April is Autism Awareness Month. Here at rethink autism, wed like to do out part in helping children with autism get the diagnosis and intervention they need as early as possible because we know the earlier intervention begins, the better the prognosis. In this next series of videos, well show you what the early signs of autism are and share with you one familys journey from desperation to new found hope.Autism emerges in the first three years of a childs life. The symptoms can vary from child to child, and range from mild to severe, but all children with autism display difficulties in three areas: social interaction, verbal and non verbal communication, and repetitive behaviors or restrictive interests.If you suspect your child may have autism, speak to your pediatrician as soon as possible. Here are some key signs that may be cause for concern:One of the most common red flags parents report is that they suspect their child may have a hearing impairment because he no longer responds to his name, and doesnt look at them when they speak. But in fact the lack of response or eye contact can point to an autism spectrum disorder. Other early signs include: not pointing to things in the environment, not speaking, and repetitive body movements such as hand flapping.Remember, children with autism who received early intensive behavioral treatment have been shown to make substantial gains in IQ, language, academic, and social behavior. So the sooner your child gets help, the better.In the next video, well take a closer look at the early signs of autism and compare two brothers. Chad, who is typically developing, and Chance who has been diagnosed with autismMore »
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There are conflicting opinions about fluoride. Watch our video for more information about its uses and advantages.
Transcript: You might be confused about whether adding fluoride to drinking water or dental hygiene products is a...
You might be confused about whether adding fluoride to drinking water or dental hygiene products is a good or bad thing. Well, you're NOT alone. Health care professionals, and even local politicians, have been arguing over fluoride's virtues and vices for decades. So what's the debate all about? Here's a quick run down of the different points of view in the great fluoride debate.First, exactly what IS fluoride and why is it used to promote oral health?Fluoride is an element that occurs naturally in many foods, soil and water. In our bodies it has the unique ability to attract calcium, a building block of bones and teeth. It helps keep teeth cavity-free by making the tooth surface harder by actually remineralizing tooth enamel as it goes through its life cycle.That's why manufacturers add fluoride to products like mouthwashes and toothpastes, and municipalities put fluoride in the local water supply. According to the American Dental Association, fluoridation of municipal water supplies has REDUCED Americans' f tooth decay rate by 50 to 60 PERCENT over the last 60 years. But OPPONENTS of fluoridation point out that those statistics are not as impressive as they might seem at first glance. Recent analysis shows that communities NOT using fluoridated water have still seen an 18 to 40 percent reduction in rates of tooth decay during the same time span. The reason? The increased use of fluoridated toothpastes and the popularity of bottled waters. Because of the increase in these supplemental fluoride sources, those arguing AGAINST adding fluoride to drinking water say that people may be consuming too MUCH fluoride. And opponents are particularly concerned that it will harm children.You see, while topical fluoride is MOST useful for stopping decay in ADULT teeth, for children, particularly those 8 or younger, too high a concentration of ingested fluoride can actually trigger a condition called FLUOROSIS. Mild cases of fluorosis cause whitish spots to form on the enamel, making the rest of the tooth look yellowed in comparison. In more severe cases, where fluoride mineralizes on the outer layer of the teeth, you can get ugly discoloration, cracking, and pitting of the enamel. Ironically, this cracking and pitting exposes the dentin, the soft layer underneath the enamel, making the teeth MORE susceptible to cavities and tooth decay. Some experts also worry that fluoridated water is harmful for the ELDERLY, people with calcium and magnesium deficiencies, and people with certain kidney diseases. These folks MAY be more susceptible to a painful bone disease called SKELETALl FLUOROSIS. And others argue that there's no TRUE way to know for sure just how much fluoride is being put into their water supplies.To find out how much fluoride is in your tap water, you can contact your local or state health department, or your local water supplier. The World Health Organization set a general concentration guideline of 1.5 miligram of fluoride per liter in drinking water to avoid adverse effects. In AMERICA the guidelines are even lower, 1 part per million which is about the same as 1.0 milligram per liter. This guideline was reduced recently by the Dept of Health and Human Services to reflect the realities of the additional fluorides that are present in the population's food and water intake. So if you're worried that you're getting too much fluoride, talk to your dentist to evaluate your fluoride levels.For more information on how to keep your teeth healthy and shining, check out other videos in this series.More »
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With your new addition comes more than a few adjustments. One of these is your health insurance plans and costs. Find out more about this in this video.
Transcript: With the arrival of a new baby comes the arrival of new medical bills! Your infant can cost you a pretty...
With the arrival of a new baby comes the arrival of new medical bills! Your infant can cost you a pretty penny starting right from birth. In fact, the average cost of a vaginal delivery in the United States is six to eight thousand dollars. While the average cesarean section delivery is more like 10 to 12 thousand. Throw in AT LEAST six first-year checkups four rounds of infant vaccinations and common ailments, like ear infections and colds and it's little wonder that you need a good health insurance plan for your infant! For many parents, the most logical insurance option is to add a new infant to their existing plan. State law usually mandates that your insurance company accept the new addition, as long as you report your baby's birth within 30 days. This option becomes more complicated, however, if you lose your job during your pregnancy. In situations like this, a federal law called COBRA will allow you to keep the same health insurance provided by your old employer. But you should expect to pay for your full premium, plus two percent. Although it's an expensive option, COBRA ensures your baby gets the care you've come to count on for up to 36 months after your last day. If you didn't have medical insurance to begin with your state's Children's Health Insurance Protection Program, or CHIP, may be able to offer affordable insurance to your baby. In fact, President Obama recently passed the CHIP Reorganization Act, which ensures that the plan will reach millions of new children in 2009. Whomever you obtain insurance through, it's vital that you find out what your plan covers BEFORE your baby is born. Typically, your insurance company will pay for well-child care, which includes vaccines, medication, and normal check-ups. You'll also want to find out if your preferred OBGYN and pediatrician are part of your insurance plan's network. If they are NOT, you can expect to pay more-or even ALL OF-the costs to see these doctors. Remember, your new baby should never be without insurance. Visit cms.hhs.gov/home/chip to find out more.More »
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During the first two weeks of infancy, your baby undergoes many changes, but there are newborn health issues -- such as jaundice -- that you should be aware of. Learn more here.
Transcript: From the top of the head to the tips of the toes, here's what to expect in your newborn's health during...
From the top of the head to the tips of the toes, here's what to expect in your newborn's health during the first 2 weeks of life! There's a lot going on in that little head of your baby! A vaginal birth alone can give your child a cone head, or scalp swelling If you delivered your baby the old fashioned way, the head may look a bit cone shaped as the skull bones are not yet fully fused. This allows the bones to temporarily overlap one another to ease baby's passage down the birth canal, and also allows space for your little one's brain to grow! Caput is generalized swelling under the skin of the scalp, and cephalohematoma is swelling that is more localized, confined to the tissue sheath that surrounds the skull bones. But don't fret, these conditions almost always clear up on their own. In the weeks following your baby's birth, you may notice that the scalp appears flaky, scaly, or even scabby. This skin condition is called cradle cap, and is generally harmless, though it may become itchy in serious cases; but will usually clear up on it's own in several months. Doctors believe it's from the burst of hormones released from the mother during birth. Other surprises to expect, also related to those same maternal hormones, are enlarged genitalia, including the penis, scrotum and vulva; And what might be more unexpected--vaginal discharge and period-like spotting in baby girls. While some of this may be surprising-and shocking-most of these symptoms will dissipate in a few days when the hormones leave your baby's body. So, your newborn's eyes are crossed and they don't even look like yours! Don't worry, a newborn's eyes don't usually move together until about 3 months of age. As for eye color, the slate grey tone you see now will have morphed into the actual color by 6 months. Your newborn's eyes may also have a blood shot or yellow tint to them, both of which are to be expected. The blood vessels you see in your baby's eyes may have burst while he was traveling the birth canal, and they will heal on their own. If the eyes look a little yellow, the skin might too. This condition is called jaundice, and indicates that the liver is not yet filtering the old bilirubin from your child's blood. A certain degree of jaundice is expected, and may be treated with light therapy, but VERY high levels can lead to serious brain damage. Talk to your pediatrician if concerned. If your little one's skin is looking a little bluish, particularly in the hands and feet, don't worry, it just means that your baby can't fully regulate temperature or circulation on his own yet, and could use your help with massages and a good cuddle. Now, don't get too worried, your baby's new body is just getting used to being in the world. Simply keep an eye on the condition, and contact pediatricians if things don't resolve on their own, as that could imply something more serious. Another common newborn medical condition is thrush, a yeast infection in the mouth. Because yeast can be present in the vagina, this condition is often passed to a baby from his mother during delivery. Thrush usually manifests as white spots in your baby's mouth, tongue, and throat. Some children also experience a yeast infection as a persistent diaper rash. Rarely, mostly in the immunocompromised, thrush can spread and cause a life-threatening infection. Your pediatrician may prescribe an anti-fungal ointment or oral medication to kill the yeast. There are OTC treatments, but it is best to have a doctor diagnose these spots as a fungus or yeast before giving your baby any medication unnecessarily. Moving down your baby's body, you'll notice the umbilical cord stump, where the belly button will be. The stump will eventually dry up and fall off, but expect to wait 10 to 20 days. When it detaches, you may notice a bit of blood in your baby's diaper, which is completely normal. In the interim, always fold your baby's diapers BELOW the umbilical cord stump and avoid tub baths until AFTER it has detached. Some doctors also recommend regularly cleaning the area with a cotton ball soaked in warm, soapy water., or even rubbing alcohol, though this can cause some over-drying of the skin. Parents often wonder how to care for a newly circumcised boy's penis. Luckily, all you really need to do is keep the area clean with mild soap and water. If your son has a bandage on his penis, change it as needed, and remember to apply petroleum jelly first so the bandage doesn't stick! Note that the incision will look red for several days, and you may notice a yellowish film around the head of the penis, do NOT try to remove it!. Although it will look worse in the days after the procedure, his penis is healing. It should start looking normal about a week after surgery. While all of these conditions are common in newborns remember that it's still smart to discuss any health concerns with your baby's pediatrician!More »
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Did you know that some birth defects are passed on to babies by means of infection? Watch this video and learn in detail about birth defects from maternal infection.
Transcript: While many birth defects are passed from parent to child via genetic material means, others are transmitted...
While many birth defects are passed from parent to child via genetic material means, others are transmitted via infection. When a mother has an illness that results in a birth defect in her baby, it is known as a congenital infection. Some congenital infections stem from untreated sexually transmitted diseases, like genital herpes or syphilis. Genital herpes is an STD that causes sores on the genital area. If a woman is having a genital herpes outbreak when she delivers, several outcomes are possible, depending on when she contracted the infection. Women who acquire genital herpes for the first time near the time of delivery have a 30 to 50 percent chance of passing the infection on to their babies during a vaginal delivery, whether or not they have symptoms. However, women who have had herpes before pregnancy and have a flare-up or silent infection at the time of vaginal delivery have ONLY about a 3 percent chance of infecting their babies in A newborn with herpes may have lasting disabilities like cerebral palsy, mental retardation, seizures, as well as vision and hearing loss, and in the most severe cases, death. While this is frightening, it CAN usually be avoided if a mother gives birth via c-section. While there is no cure for herpes, antiviral drugs can shorten the duration of an attack and help relieve symptoms. In the months leading up to the birth, a pregnant woman may take acyclovir, a herpes-fighting anti-viral medication. This drug appears safe in pregnancy and has not been associated with birth defects with more than 20 years of use. Birth defects can also stem from a bacterial STD called syphilis. When left untreated, this disease often causes bone defects, brain damage, blindness, stillbirth, and newborn death. The good news is that preventing these consequences is as easy as being tested for syphilis early in pregnancy and then getting treated with an antibiotic, like penicillin. Of course, its not just sexual infections that can cause birth defects in a baby! If a woman contracts rubella in her first trimester, there is an 85-percent chance that her newborn will be negatively affected. But if she is infected at the end of her second trimester, that risk drops to 25-percent. Although vaccinations have LARGELY eliminated Rubella from the United States its still wise to get tested and vaccinated if YOU are not immune. If youre pregnant, youll also want to be aware of a parasitic infection called toxoplasmosis, which comes primarily from contact with cats, most specifically with their fecal matter. Absolutely NO changing kitty litter while pregnant! Cats get toxoplasmosis from other cats or from consuming raw meat. Humans can sometimes contract this from meat as well, so beware under-cooked meat. Between 400 and 4,000 babies are born with toxoplasmosis annually. These infants may develop enlarged livers and spleens, pneumonia, mental retardation, or cerebral palsy, as well as seizures, vision loss, jaundice and in some cases death within a few days of birth. Treatment for pregnant women with toxoplasmosis is still in its experimental stage, so its wise to take precautions to bypass the virus altogether. The best way to avoid toxoplasmosis is to limit contact with cats, if possible, and if a meat-eater, to eat well-cooked meat. Less common infections that can lead to birth defects include: Fifth Disease, a common, usually mild viral infection, spread through the air via coughs or sneezes. It can, however, lead a newborn to experience anemia and/or heart failure. Varicella disorder, which stems from a pregnant woman contracting chicken pox, or varicella in the first or second trimester of her pregnancy, can cause defects in a newborn ranging from small stature to mental retardation. If youre pregnant or planning to become pregnant, talk to your doctor about how to avoid these infectionsand also discuss what to do if you are exposed to any of them during pregnancy!More »
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According to research, one in thirty three babies in the United States is born with a birth defect. Learn more about them in our video.
Transcript: According to the Center for Disease Control In the United States, and the American College of Obstetricians...
According to the Center for Disease Control In the United States, and the American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists, one in 33 babies will be born with some form of serious birth defect. A birth defect is an abnormality in the way a newborn's body looks or functions. Birth defects can lead to cognitive, emotional, or physical disabilities, and in some cases, they can be fatal. To understand birth defects, it's key to understand that there are two overarching types structural and functional, or developmental. STRUCTURAL birth defects are those that occur when a specific body part is missing or has formed incorrectly. Both heart defects and spina bifida, a birth defect caused by the incomplete closure of the embryonic neural tube, which results in the spinal cord not being fully formed and covered, are both examples of structural defects. FUNCTIONAL birth defects, meanwhile, refer to problems with the way a body part or system functions. These problems often lead to developmental disabilities. Tay-Sachs disease, which is a fatal disorder of the central nervous system, is an example of a functional birth defect. Of ALL birth defects, the three most common are: heart defects, which affect as many as one in 100 babies in the USA according to the CDC and March of Dimes. Cleft lips and cleft palates, which occur in one in 700 newborns in the United States, according to the CDC and Down syndrome, which affects about one in 733 babies born in the USA, according to the National Down Syndrome Society. Birth defects can be caused by factors relating to the environment, to genetics, or to a combination of the two. One of the most common reasons GENETIC defects occur is that one or more of a baby's 20,000-25,000 genes is missing or flawed. Problems of this nature can be passed to a baby from either-or both-parents. These are called single-gene defects, which are mutations in a single gene, and they include a form of dwarfism, Achondroplasia , which affects about 1 in 15,000 to in 40,000 births, and occurs in all races and in both sexes and the serious lung disorder cystic fibrosis. Genetic birth defects can ALSO arise when something goes wrong with a baby's chromosomes. A healthy human has 23 pairs of chromosomes, or 46 in total. But, if an error occurs during an egg or a sperm cell's development...a baby created from that egg or that sperm can be born with too few, too many, or damaged chromosomes. Down syndrome is an example of a chromosomal birth defect, which occurs when an additional chromosome is added to the 21st pair of chromosomes. Thus, it is aptly called Trisomy 21. While genetic birth defects like these are common, so are ENVIRONMENTAL birth defects. Drinking alcohol during pregnancy is an environmental factor that can lead to the development of some potentially serious defects. Each year between 1,000 and 6,000 babies in the United States are born with fetal alcohol syndrome or FAS, which manifests as a pattern of mental and physical birth defects common in babies of mothers who drink heavily during pregnancy. Other common environmental teratogens, or toxic substances know to affect fetuses, include: certain recreational drugs, like crack and cocaine, and prescription drugs, like Acutane, You must check with your doctor before continuing any prescription drugs you may be taking. And if you have a drug or alcohol problem, talk to your healthcare provider, getting help early is critical for the baby's health! A woman's risk of having a baby with certain birth defects involving chromosomes is also likely to increase with age. Paternal age is also a factor in birth defects. Other environmental birth defects may stem from infections that a woman may contract during pregnancy. A rubella infection, for example, can lead to heart defects, vision and hearing problems, or in more serious cases, mental retardation in a baby. The weeks before and during the first trimester are most dangerous for infection of a fetus with respect to rubella infection. Additionally, a mother's untreated sexually transmitted disease can be passed to a newborn and cause problems. For example, the transmission of genital herpes could lead to brain damage or cerebral palsy in a baby. Sometimes, a birth defect will be multifactorial, arising from a COMBINATION of genetics and environment. In cases like these a baby may inherit a gene that will make him MORE likely to have a birth defect... but ONLY if he is exposed to certain environmental substances, like a virus or cigarette smoke. OR if the mother doesn't get enough folic acid before becoming pregnant in the case of Neural Tube Defects like Spina bifida. As for heart defects, exposure to certain medications during the first trimester of pregnancy may play a role in causing heart defects. Other causes include maternal alcohol abuse, rubella infection, and diabetes during pregnancy." Whatever their cause, birth defects can be confusing, overwhelming, and devastating. So if YOUR child is affected, speak with your doctor about treatment for him and support for you.More »
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