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Dental Fluorosis can start from an early age. The initial signs are quite minimal, but they may result in white speckled teeth. Find out more about this here.
Transcript: Nobody likes yellow, stained teeth. But imagine obvious white specks on your teeth that can NEVER be...
Nobody likes yellow, stained teeth. But imagine obvious white specks on your teeth that can NEVER be brushed away.Those specks may be a condition called FLUOROSIS, where fluoride mineralizes on the outer layer of your teeth, damaging the enamel surface. In mild cases, it's nothing more than a whitish spot making the rest of the tooth look yellower in comparison. In more severe cases, mottling of the enamel leads to black and brown stains, and cracking and pitting of the teeth, making them MORE susceptible overall to cavities and tooth decay. Fluorosis FIRST develops in CHILDREN, between the ages of 1 and 4. -- BEFORE permanent teeth come in. Fluoride exposure is MOST critical at this time because permanent teeth are still developing. While the amount of fluoride that's added to water by city municipalities IS NOT a problem, some communities have higher concentrations of naturally occurring fluoride, that CAN cause MILD to moderate cases of fluorosis. The fluoride in toothpastes IS NOT an issue if not swallowed in large amounts. Plus, most children's toothpastes are fluoride- free. Past the age of 8, however, additional fluorosis is not USUALLY a risk. The EFFECTS of fluorosis are IRREVERSIBLE and preventive measures would have to be taken when the child was very young. If you want to get rid of those pesky specks, though, you've got options. Bleaching or even abrasion can take care of mild cases. Abrasion finely sands off the outer layer of stained enamel, leaving you speck-free. If your case is more severe, abrasion will take off too much enamel, which is why composite bonding and porcelain veneers may be a better bet. In composite bonding, the enamel is treated or etched with a mild acid so a composite resin can be bonded on to the tooth surface. With veneers, a ceramic SHELL is placed over the front of the tooth. Both look good initially, but while bonding is less EXPENSIVE than veneers, it tends to discolor over time and is considered less permanent.For more ways to make your smile look amazing, check out other videos in this series.More »
Last Modified: 2013-08-29 | Tags »
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You can't protect your baby from everything, no matter how much you want to -- so be prepared. Learn about the most common aches and pains your baby might face in year one.
Last Modified: 2011-12-30 | Tags »
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There are conflicting opinions about fluoride. Watch our video for more information about its uses and advantages.
Transcript: You might be confused about whether adding fluoride to drinking water or dental hygiene products is a...
You might be confused about whether adding fluoride to drinking water or dental hygiene products is a good or bad thing. Well, you're NOT alone. Health care professionals, and even local politicians, have been arguing over fluoride's virtues and vices for decades. So what's the debate all about? Here's a quick run down of the different points of view in the great fluoride debate.First, exactly what IS fluoride and why is it used to promote oral health?Fluoride is an element that occurs naturally in many foods, soil and water. In our bodies it has the unique ability to attract calcium, a building block of bones and teeth. It helps keep teeth cavity-free by making the tooth surface harder by actually remineralizing tooth enamel as it goes through its life cycle.That's why manufacturers add fluoride to products like mouthwashes and toothpastes, and municipalities put fluoride in the local water supply. According to the American Dental Association, fluoridation of municipal water supplies has REDUCED Americans' f tooth decay rate by 50 to 60 PERCENT over the last 60 years. But OPPONENTS of fluoridation point out that those statistics are not as impressive as they might seem at first glance. Recent analysis shows that communities NOT using fluoridated water have still seen an 18 to 40 percent reduction in rates of tooth decay during the same time span. The reason? The increased use of fluoridated toothpastes and the popularity of bottled waters. Because of the increase in these supplemental fluoride sources, those arguing AGAINST adding fluoride to drinking water say that people may be consuming too MUCH fluoride. And opponents are particularly concerned that it will harm children.You see, while topical fluoride is MOST useful for stopping decay in ADULT teeth, for children, particularly those 8 or younger, too high a concentration of ingested fluoride can actually trigger a condition called FLUOROSIS. Mild cases of fluorosis cause whitish spots to form on the enamel, making the rest of the tooth look yellowed in comparison. In more severe cases, where fluoride mineralizes on the outer layer of the teeth, you can get ugly discoloration, cracking, and pitting of the enamel. Ironically, this cracking and pitting exposes the dentin, the soft layer underneath the enamel, making the teeth MORE susceptible to cavities and tooth decay. Some experts also worry that fluoridated water is harmful for the ELDERLY, people with calcium and magnesium deficiencies, and people with certain kidney diseases. These folks MAY be more susceptible to a painful bone disease called SKELETALl FLUOROSIS. And others argue that there's no TRUE way to know for sure just how much fluoride is being put into their water supplies.To find out how much fluoride is in your tap water, you can contact your local or state health department, or your local water supplier. The World Health Organization set a general concentration guideline of 1.5 miligram of fluoride per liter in drinking water to avoid adverse effects. In AMERICA the guidelines are even lower, 1 part per million which is about the same as 1.0 milligram per liter. This guideline was reduced recently by the Dept of Health and Human Services to reflect the realities of the additional fluorides that are present in the population's food and water intake. So if you're worried that you're getting too much fluoride, talk to your dentist to evaluate your fluoride levels.For more information on how to keep your teeth healthy and shining, check out other videos in this series.More »
Last Modified: 2013-08-29 | Tags »
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Infant medication is very different from adult medication. Learn about proper dosage, label reading and more.
Transcript: A spoonful of sugar may work for Mary Poppins but there are better ways to make the medicine go down...
A spoonful of sugar may work for Mary Poppins but there are better ways to make the medicine go down for your baby. While no parent likes to think that their child may get sick, there are bound to be times when an infant requires medication. Before you dispense it though, it's vital that you have a detailed talk with your doctor or pharmacist, even if the medication is simply an over-the-counter variety. Learn when and how often you should give your infant the medication. Some medications need to be taken on a full stomach, while others should only be given to a hungry baby. Most importantly, ensure that you understand the correct doses to administer to your baby. Dosages for most medications are determined by weight, not age, so make sure you have the current measurement for your child. Even if you've given a particular drug to your child before, check back with your doctor. Your rapidly growing baby's needs may have changed. Once you know the correct dosage, measure it accurately using a instrument like an oral syringe. To do it, push the syringe's plunger down, and then put the tip into the medicine bottle. Pull back on the plunger until the liquid reaches the dosage mark prescribed by your doctor. Sometimes dosages come in ounces, and other times in millimeters, so make sure when you're measuring medication that you never try to convert the amounts in your head, as a mistake could result in a potentially deadly overdose. To administer the medicine, hold your baby in one arm, slightly elevated, and then place the dropper in the side of the mouth, gently squirting the medication between tongue and cheek. Never release the liquid directly into your baby's throat, as this may make your infant gag. If your baby tries to spit the medicine out, use your finger to pull his cheek open and leave it there until he swallows. Some doctors also recommend gently rubbing your baby's throat to encourage swallowing. Once your infant has taken the medication, check that the syringe is empty. If not, tap it lightly and administer the rest. If your infant actively resists medication, you may want to talk to your doctor about flavored varieties or dissolving strips. Or, if your baby is eating solids, you can ask if a tablet form is available. A tablet can be crushed and mixed into a little applesauce or yogurt. Never mix medication into a bottle of juice or milk, though. If your baby doesn't finish drinking, he won't receive the entire dose. Remember that you should never give your baby medication that has expired, or medicine formulated for adults, or that was prescribed for someone else. And always avoid aspirin, which, when your baby has a viral illness, has been shown to be associated with a potentially fatal disorder, Reye syndrome. If you have any questions or concerns about your baby's medication, always mention them to your doctor or pharmacist.More »
Last Modified: 2013-05-02 | Tags »
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Is your baby coughing or sneezing? She may have a cold. Here's help for treating a baby's cold with traditional medicines and easy home remedies.
Transcript: Most children average between five and ten colds a year, so it's smart to learn how to spot and soothe...
Most children average between five and ten colds a year, so it's smart to learn how to spot and soothe one! Often, an infant with a cold will get sick gradually, experiencing one new sickly symptom at a time. Cold symptoms include coughing, sneezing, and a runny nose with mucous ranging from thin and clear to thick and yellow. While a low-grade fever may accompany a cold, this symptom is usually short-lasting, and resolves on its own. To speed up the healing process, allow your child to get plenty of rest and lots of fluids. For infants younger than four months, this means breast milk or formula, while an infant over six months can also have juice. In addition to these remedies, cold-related congestion may be eased by putting a humidifier or vaporizer in your baby's room. Cool mist is best. A congested baby may also find relief if you elevate her head slightly while she sleeps. To do it, place a few towels or a slim pillow between the mattress and the crib springs. And because an infant can't blow her nose, you may want to use a rubber bulb syringe to clear out her nasal passages. This technique involves gently squirting saline drops up your baby's nostrils to loosen mucous... then with the bulb squeezed, re-insert it slightly into the nostril and let go of the bulb to aspirate all the mucous and saline. The syringe method is particularly effective if your baby is too stuffed-up to breathe comfortably or to nurse. While all of this can ease cold symptoms, one thing that DOESN'T help is cold medicine. Not only are these medications ineffective in children younger than six, they may make symptoms WORSE, and in fact, are considered potentially dangerous when used as combined symptom preparations. If you feel you MUST give your baby medicine, talk to her doctor about babyacetaminophen or ibuprofen. Still, a doctor's visit probably isn't necessary unless your baby has a fever above 101 degrees or hasn't improved within a week. While there is no foolproof way to cut out colds in the future, it CAN help to ask people to wash their hands before playing with your baby, and to remember to wash your hands as well! Additionally, while this might sound obvious, try to avoid contact with sick people. And breastfeed! Breastfed babies get sick less often than their formula fed peers because of the antibodies passed from you to your infant.More »
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If your infant has a fever, runny nose, and feels sick, do you need a doctor? Should you get your newborn a flu shot? Watch this for details on your baby and the flu.
Transcript: Your infant will generally make it clear if she's sick-but how do you know if she has the FLU? One great...
Your infant will generally make it clear if she's sick-but how do you know if she has the FLU? One great indicator of influenza is symptoms that crop up quickly and often severely. A baby who has the flu will demonstrate fever, a lethargic attitude, appear fatigued, and may have less interest in nursing. Generally, chills and respiratory symptoms-like a runny nose and dry cough-also accompany the flu virus. Many infants suffering from the flu will experience vomiting, diarrhea, and a fever above 101 degrees. Another tip-off that the flu is at play is if your baby gets sick during flu season; generally from October to March. If you've done your research and feel that your child DOES have influenza, the best treatment is rest and PLENTY of fluids. For a baby younger than four months, that just means regular nursing or bottle feeding, while an older infant can also have a little water. And if your baby is over six months old, you can introduce her to a little fruit juice. You may find that giving your baby child acetaminophen relieves some discomfort. For babies older than 6 months, ibuprofen is also effective. Of course, you should ALWAYS check in with the doctor before you give your baby medication, although you don't necessarily need to visit his or her office. Because there is NO medicine that kills the influenza virus, and because treatment is simple, a doctor may suggest that you wait. A. There are medications that can shorten the duration and severity of flu symptoms, B. but you have to be seen by a doctor to obtain this. If, however, your baby has a fever ABOVE 101 degrees, or if a fever lasts longer than three days, it's important to contact your pediatrician. Similarly, call the doctor if your baby doesn't start to feel at least a little better in three to five days. This is important because-while most bouts of flu heal harmlessly-the virus CAN lead to serious consequences, like pneumonia. In the future, help prevent the flu by keeping both your infant's and your own hands clean. Of course, you should also keep your baby away from someone you know is sick. But because contagious adults may not show any symptoms, exposure to the flu virus is still possible! For this reason, consider taking your infant to the doctor for a flu shot. In fact, the CDC recommends an annual flu shot for ALL healthy people over six months, so fight the flu by getting the whole family vaccinated!More »
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A baby's head is surprisingly hard, but a bump can cause a concussion or other serious injury. Find out which baby head injuries are minor -- and which need immediate medical attention.
Transcript: Whether your baby bumps into the coffee table or takes a tumble down the stairs, knowing how to react...
Whether your baby bumps into the coffee table or takes a tumble down the stairs, knowing how to react to a head injury is CRUCIAL. IMMEDIATELY after a bump or a fall, you'll want to assess your baby for outward injuries. Check for limbs that may appear misshapen or for a wound that won't stop bleeding. Both clearly require an IMMEDIATE trip to the emergency room. Similarly, if your baby has been knocked unconscious, call 911 IMMEDIATELY. These responses are innate and somewhat obvious for apparent external injuries, but sometimes a bad bump or fall may hurt your infant INTERNALLY. Even if your baby SEEMS fine after an accident, it's vital to keep a very close eye on your child for the next 48 hours. It is also a very good idea to give your pediatrician a call to at least discuss the injury, and perhaps be seen. Ideally, you'd observe your awake, alert child for at least the next eight hours, watching for signs of a possible skull fracture. These may include, but are not limited to a large, soft spot on the scalp, blood in the whites of the eyes, and pink fluid draining from the nose or ears. Also keep an eye out for a concussion, which can have a more subtle set of hallmarks. Concussions may manifest as unusual eye movements, trouble tracking, frequent vomiting, and excessive lethargy. An older baby with a concussion may also experience confusion and problems with coordination and communication. But if your baby is injured at bedtime, you won't be able to immediately observe your child for these waking signs of distress. Therefore, it's a good idea to watch your infant by waking your baby twice a night for the two nights following the accident. You'll want to be sure you CAN wake him, and that he's as alert as a sleepy baby can be! Despite the fact that most skull fractures and concussions heal on their own, this cautious observation is still important. That's because a SECOND blow to the head while the first is still healing CAN be quite dangerous, potentially resulting in brain damage. For this reason, you'll want to restrict your baby's play for the next several weeks, continuing to keep an extra watchful eye on your little one. And remember, too, to trust your instincts! Even if your baby SEEMS fine after a serious accident, you may feel that something is "off." That's when it's time to seek out a doctor's professional reassurance!More »
Last Modified: 2013-03-29 | Tags »
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New parents should know when a baby is okay and when to call the pediatrician. Watch this video to get the facts.
Transcript: If you have a newborn, you've probably programmed her doctor's number on your speed dial. But how do...
If you have a newborn, you've probably programmed her doctor's number on your speed dial. But how do you know when to push that button? Surprisingly, some of the worrisome habits of newborns are really just normal parts of development. For example, most newborn babies have very soft or even liquid bowel movements, which is typical and is usually NOT a cause for concern. Similarly, a newborn's spit-up may contain trace amounts of blood during her early weeks. If you're breastfeeding, this blood is very likely yours, as your cracked nipples adjust to nursing. Occasionally, your baby may also spit up forcefully enough to tear a tiny blood vessel at the base of her esophagus. This sounds scarier than it is, and it usually heals quickly on its own. Still, some health symptoms in newborns ARE cause for concern, and require you to use that speed dial. Watch out for a rectal temperature greater than 100.4 degrees Fahrenheit, which could indicate an infection. If your baby is wetting fewer than five diapers a day, or is not shedding tears when she cries, she may be dehydrated and need medical attention. Yellow skin or eyes are signs of jaundice, and require a call to the doctor. Bloody stool, greenish mucus in spit-up, and an infected-looking umbilical stump or circumcised penis also warrant check-ups. Other indications of a doctor-worthy problem may be less obvious, such as changes in your baby's temperament or cries. A once active baby who is suddenly lethargic, or who loses interest in feeding, may very well be sick. And if your baby is crying in a way that is unfamiliar to you, or if she refuses to be comforted, a call to your doctor IS warranted. Remember that you are the ultimate expert on your baby. If something feels "off," it very likely is - so check in with the doctor.More »
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Even newborn babies can grow small pimples and show signs of acne. No need to worry, though-- it's not serious condition. Watch this video to learn about baby acne and it treatment.
Transcript: If you assumed your child wouldn't experience acne for AT LEAST another decade, then you might be surprised...
If you assumed your child wouldn't experience acne for AT LEAST another decade, then you might be surprised if pimples appear on your newborn's skin! In fact, baby acne is a common condition, affecting about 20% of newborns. It can often crop up within several weeks of birth; traditionally manifesting around 3 weeks of age. And male babies are more often affected than female babies. Just like adult acne, the baby variety is usually centered on the face-namely the cheeks, chin and forehead. And, like its grown-up counterpart, baby acne tends to APPEAR as small whiteheads surrounded by reddish, irritated-looking skin. Generally, an infant's "acne" looks much worse when he of she is crying or fussy, due to increased blood flow to the skin. But WHY do infants get acne? Babies usually develop neonatal acne because of stimulation of the baby's oil glands by lingering maternal hormones post-delivery. These hormones cross the placenta INTO your baby and after delivery, they cause the oil glands on the skin to form bumps that look like pimples. If, however, your baby's skin looks less pimply and more rashy or scaly, the condition may NOT be acne at all. Instead your baby may have another skin condition like cradle cap or eczema. And if your baby was born with tiny white bumps on his or her face, you're not necessarily dealing with acne, either. Those white bumps are most likely milia, a condition that occurs when dead skin gets trapped in miniscule pockets on your baby's skin. Like acne, milia is harmless, and will usually clear up on its own. But milia aside, if your infant has acne, a doctor's visit isn't usually necessary. Instead, patience is key, as the problem generally clears up WITHOUT treatment in just a few weeks. Knowing this, it's important NOT to put lotions or oils on your baby's acne, which can further irritate the condition. Instead, wash your baby's face once a day with warm water, and gently pat it dry. With this type of TLC, your little one should be looking forward to clearer skin in the very near future!More »
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Do you know how to use the EpiPen? If you or anyone you know is allergic to insect bites, foods or other types of allergens, The EpiPen can be a lifesaver. Learn how to use it, if you ever need to.
Transcript: If you or someone you love has a severe allergy to insect bites, certain foods or other allergens, the...
If you or someone you love has a severe allergy to insect bites, certain foods or other allergens, the Epipen can be a life-saver. The Epipen contains an injection of the adrenal hormone epinephrine, a stimulant that can counter the symptoms of a severe allergic reaction, including: swelling of the face, constriction of the airways, a swollen tongue or throat, trouble breathing, a severe drop in blood pressure, a weak and rapid pulse, hives, and nausea, vomiting or diarrhea.Here's how to use an Epipen. First, BEFORE you are in a crisis situation, take the time to read all directions on the label...you will not have much time to do this "in the moment."When you need to use the Epipen:1. Pull off the blue safety release cap. 2. Swing the orange tip very firmly against the outer thigh so it 'clicks.' HOLD on thigh for approximately 10 seconds to deliver the drug. Do NOT inject into the buttocks; this may not be effective. 3. After the injection, don't worry if there is excess liquid in the device. There's usually a small amount that can't be used. Now, if the allergic reaction was caused by an insect sting, you should remove the stinger. Grab it with a pair of tweezers or your fingers but don't squeeze or push the stinger. 4. Proceed to the nearest hospital emergency room RIGHT AWAY. The effects of epinephrine may wear off and the allergic reaction may reappear. You need medical support to be sure you are safely through the episode.Keep in mind, the injection can cause upset stomach, vomiting, sweating, dizziness, shakes, nervousness, pale skin and headaches. To learn about more allergies and how to treat them, check out other videos in this series.More »
Last Modified: 2013-01-29 | Tags »
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Anaphylactic reactions are extremely rare and can be life threatening. These can cause tongue swelling, hives, and shock. Check out the video to learn some interesting facts.
Transcript: It's rare, but allergies CAN be deadly. Anaphylaxis, a severe WHOLE-BODY reaction can lead to suffocation...
It's rare, but allergies CAN be deadly. Anaphylaxis, a severe WHOLE-BODY reaction can lead to suffocation or heart failure. According to research, anaphylactic reactions are responsible for approximately 1,500 deaths in the U.S. each year. And 88 percent of those involve sudden cardiovascular collapse. Anaphylaxis typically occurs after a SECOND exposure to an allergen,. This is because the FIRST exposure causes the immune system to create antibodies to the TRIGGERING SUBSTANCE-think peanuts, bee stings, or mold. The second exposure sends those antibodies into action, causing a cascade of bodily reactions that lead to loss of blood pressure, hives, constriction of airways, and gastrointestional problems. The skin and respiratory system are most likely to be affected, followed by the gastrointestinal tract and circulatory and nervous systems. The most COMMON triggers of anaphylaxis are FOODS such as peanuts, wheat, tree nuts, shellfish, fish, milk, and eggs, MEDICATIONS, including antibiotics, aspirin, ibuprofen, and other anti-inflammatory drugs, as well as insect VENOM from stings have also been known to trigger an anaphylactic reaction. If you are HIGHLY allergic to ANY substance, and have experienced an anaphylactic reaction, OR if you are at risk due to genetics or past health history, you should have an "allergy action plan." Carry an epinephrine injection with you at all times; Wear a medic alert bracelet that explains your potential condition, and in a crisis Call 911 immediately. EMTs may give antihistamines and corticosteroids intravenously to reduce airway inflammation and a beta agonist to relieve breathing symptoms. To learn more about allergic reactions, check out other videos in this series.More »
Last Modified: 2013-04-16 | Tags »
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As babies develop their motor skills, they are more prone to cuts, bumps and bruises. Watch our video on first aid for babies to help you take care of your little one.
Transcript: Cuts and bruises and bumps, oh my! When your baby suffers a mild injury, you'll want to be prepared to...
Cuts and bruises and bumps, oh my! When your baby suffers a mild injury, you'll want to be prepared to help. One of the most common baby "ouchies" is a standard cut or scrape, often acquired during a mild run-in with the ground. If your baby is bleeding from such an injury, use a clean towel and apply firm pressure to the area for a few minutes. At this point, you'll want to check for dirt, glass, or other debris that may be embedded in the cut. Remove such objects by flushing the area with cool running water, or by gently using tweezers. Now, wash the wound with warm water and soap and finish up by patting it dry. Small cuts and scrapes heal best with exposure to the air, so if your baby's injury is mild, it's not necessary to bandage. If a cut is deeper, apply an antiseptic ointment, then use an ordinary adhesive bandage to gently pull the edges of skin together. Change your baby's bandage daily-or whenever it gets wet-until a scab has formed on the wound. While cuts like this are common, babies are just as likely to be bothered by bruises-blame their active lifestyles and exploring personalities! Most black and blue marks are not painful and will heal on their own within a week or two. If you suspect that your baby is bothered by a bruise, wrap an ice pack in a towel and apply it to the area for 5-10 minutes. Your baby may resist this treatment, so try icing the area during a relaxing activity, like nursing. If a tumble results in a more serious injury, like a "goose egg" on the head, the ice pack treatment is also effective. But because a blow to the head can be serious, do a thorough check for injuries, and then keep a watchful eye on your baby for the next 24 hours. It is probably a good idea just to give the pediatrician a call whenever there is a head injury. If you notice signs of a serious problem, like: A large, soft area on the scalp, blood showing in the whites of the eyes, vomiting, unusual eye movement, or prolonged crying or a change in mental status... call your pediatrician, then take your infant immediately to the emergency room. Meanwhile, the pain of a more mild injury may be eased at home by offering your baby infant acetaminophen or ibuprofen. Talk to your doctor before you try this treatment, and also make an immediate appointment if your baby has a wound that will not stop bleeding, or one that looks very deep and jagged. A doctor's appointment is also necessary if a bruise doesn't fade in two weeks, or doesn't stop hurting in a few DAYS. Acting immediately and cautiously like this is vital, and may well prevent any long-term damage to your child.More »
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